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adverse reaction, amniotic membrane, extravasation, healing, neonate, wound



  1. Kadivar, Maliheh MD
  2. Bitaraf, Masoud MD
  3. Nasrabadi, Seyed Ali Hashemi BSN
  4. Mirnia, Kayvan MD


OBJECTIVE: Extravasation is leakage of material from a peripheral venous access into adjacent tissue, which results in tissue damage ranging from local irritation to necrosis and scar formation. Neonates are at extravasation risk with IV treatment because of their small, fragile veins and the long treatment period required. In this report, investigators assessed the efficacy of amniotic membrane (AM) as a biological dressing to heal extravasation wounds in neonates.


METHODS: This case series includes six neonates who presented with extravasation injuries from February 2020 to April 2022. Neonates born at any gestational age diagnosed with a wound secondary to extravasation were recruited. Neonates with skin disorders and those who had stage 1 or 2 wounds were excluded. Providers covered infection- and necrosis-free wounds with AM and assessed the wounds after 48 hours. Five days after placement, providers removed and replaced the AM; they continued to replace the bandages every 5 to 7 days until healed.


RESULTS: The average gestational age of included neonates was 33.6 weeks. Average healing time was 12.5 days (range, 10-20 days), and no adverse reactions were observed. All neonates healed completely without scar formation.


CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary report suggests that the application of AM in treating extravasation in neonates is safe and effective. However, controlled trials with larger sample sizes are needed to evaluate this outcome and determine implications for practice.