1. Anderson , Sharon
  2. Botti , Christina


Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is one of the most common genetic conditions. Affected individuals are unable to metabolize cholesterol due to inherited changes in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, which impairs the ability to metabolize cholesterol, resulting in extremely high levels of cholesterol that leads to premature coronary artery disease. Autosomal dominant FH is caused by variants in several genes, which may present as heterozygous FH (less severe) or homozygous FH (more severe). Clinical diagnosis may be more likely when there is a family history of two or more first-degree relatives with total and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) level elevations, a child is identified, or the affected individual or close relatives have tendon xanthomas and/or progressive atherosclerosis. This article provides an overview of autosomal dominant FH, including disease prevalence, clinical diagnostic criteria, genetic variants, diagnostic testing, pathognomonic findings, and treatment options. It also shares a brief case, which highlights challenges associated with genetic test interpretation and the importance of including experienced providers in the diagnosis and treatment of this underdiagnosed and often untreated or undertreated genetic condition.