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Prenatal care, Clinical nursing research, Research design, Research methodology



  1. Beck, Cheryl Tatano DNSc, CNM, FAAN


Research, clinical practice, and cost-effective nursing care are all interrelated and are dependent on the use of reliable and valid instruments. Critical to the success of any research study is the choice of instruments to measure key variables. Locating existing instruments for use in nursing research is an important but often labor-intensive activity. This article provides a review of some available instruments that measure two key clinical phenomena particular to the prenatal period: maternal-fetal and paternal-fetal attachment and adaptation to pregnancy. Examples of specific nursing studies that utilize these instruments are presented along with an assessment of the instruments' reliability and validity. Both nurse researchers and clinicians can benefit from this review of selected instruments used during the prenatal period.