Buy this Article for $10.95

Have a coupon or promotional code? Enter it here:

When you buy this you'll get access to the ePub version, a downloadable PDF, and the ability to print the full article.


  1. Ragland, Rachel E. BS
  2. Mansfield, Jennifer L. BS
  3. Savaiano, Dennis A. PhD


In order to address the variation in state-level GMO labeling, Congress passed a national GMO labeling law in July 2016. Under this legislation, Public Law No. 114-216, all food manufacturers are required to disclose whether their products contain genetically modified ingredients. However, manufacturers have a choice as to how they provide the information, including a text statement or symbol, a digital QR code, a phone number, or a Web site. The US Department of Agriculture was granted 2 years following passage of the legislation to finalize and implement the regulations. The primary critique of Public Law No. 114-216 is that the label forms (ie, an unregulated icon, telephone number, Web site, or digital code) are neither transparent nor convenient for the consumer. One universal GMO "label" is more likely to provide consumers with clear, direct, and usable information. With a universal label, consumers who want to know if GMOs are included in a food product can do so without the undue burden of accessing a secondary source.