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  1. Dunphy, Christopher PhD
  2. Miller, Gabrielle F. PhD
  3. Rice, Ketra PhD
  4. Vo, Linda MPH
  5. Sunshine, Gregory JD
  6. McCord, Russell JD
  7. Howard-Williams, Mara JD, MPH
  8. Coronado, Fatima MD, MPH


Context: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, states across the United States implemented various strategies to mitigate transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19).


Objective: To examine the effect of COVID-19-related state closures on consumer spending, business revenue, and employment, while controlling for changes in COVID-19 incidence and death.


Design: The analysis estimated a difference-in-difference model, utilizing temporal and geographic variation in state closure orders to analyze their impact on the economy, while controlling for COVID-19 incidence and death.


Participants: State-level data on economic outcomes from the Opportunity Insights data tracker and COVID-19 cases and death data from


Interventions: The mitigation strategy analyzed within this study was COVID-19-related state closure orders. Data on these orders were obtained from state government Web sites containing executive or administrative orders.


Main Outcome Measures: Outcomes include state-level estimates of consumer spending, business revenue, and employment levels.


Results: Analyses showed that although state closures led to a decrease in consumer spending, business revenue, and employment, they accounted for only a small portion of the observed decreases in these outcomes over the first wave of COVID-19.


Conclusions: The impact of COVID-19 on economic activity likely reflects a combination of factors, in addition to state closures, such as individuals' perceptions of risk related to COVID-19 incidence, which may play significant roles in impacting economic activity.